Obstetric fistula is the most devastating and serious of all childbirth injuries.

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What Is Fistula?

An obstetric fistula is a hole between the vagina and rectum or bladder that is caused by prolonged obstructed labor, leaving a woman incontinent of urine or feces or both.

For women with obstructed labor, labor that goes unattended, the labor can last up to six or seven days. The labor produces contractions that push the baby’s head against the mother’s pelvic bone. The soft tissues between the baby’s head and the pelvic bone are compressed and do not receive adequate blood flow. The lack of blood flow causes this delicate tissue to die, and where it dies holes are created between the laboring mother’s bladder and vagina and/or between the rectum and vagina. This is what produces incontinence in a fistula patient.

How Fistula Works

Who It Happens To

Obstetric fistula most commonly occurs among women who live in low-resource countries, who give birth without access to medical help. If a woman’s labor becomes obstructed, she could remain in excruciating pain for days before her baby is finally dislodged. Her baby likely dies and she is often left with an obstetric fistula, a small hole created by constant pressure from the fetus, which renders her incontinent.

Rejection and Isolation

A woman with fistula is too often rejected by her husband and pushed out of her village due to her foul smell.

Women Ostracized From Their Town

The Numbers are Staggering

For every woman that gets treatment, at least 50 go without. We know that one million women in this world suffer from untreated obstetric fistula. Yet, the Global Fistula Map reports that between 2010 and 2013, only 60,280 women received fistula repair surgery; about 15,000 per year, on average. This map collects self-reported data from fistula treatment centers around the world and is the most comprehensive data collection source available. At roughly 15,000 surgeries completed each year, while one million women suffer, it is evident that for every single woman who receives treatment, at least 50 – likely more – go without.


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